Work = Fd cos(theta)

F = Applied Force

d = the displacement of the object

theta = the angle between the Applied Force the the Direction of movement

Work is measured in Joules.

1 Joule = 1 Newton meter = 1 kg m^2/s^s

1 J is small. ~ lifting a 100 gram apple 1 meter.

Other energy measures: 1 calorie = energy need to heat 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius

1 calorie = 4.184 J

1 food calorie (kcal) = 4185 J

**Work is the means of energy transfer.**

**Net Work is the sum of all work done on a system: Wnet = Fnet d cos(theta)**

**Net Work is the area under a Net Force vs Displacement Graph.**

If the Fnet is in the same direction as the motion then Wnet = Fnet d

Since Fnet = mad

Wnet = mad

v^2 = v0^2 + 2ad

a = (v^2 - v0^2)/(2d)

Wnet = m( (v^2 - v0^2)/(2d)) (d)

Wnet = 1/2 mv^2 - 1/2 mv0^2

1/2 mv^2 = KE

Wnet = change in KE of the system

If Wnet is zero then there is no change in kinetic energy.

2 kinds of Mechanical energy

KE = 1/2mv^2

PE = mgh

Conservative Forces: A force is conservative depends on the starting point and ending point of an object.

NonConservative Forces: A force whose work depends on the path taken. Friction is a good example.

Conservation of of Mechanical Energy

When on conservative forces are involved:

Wnet = 1/2 mv^2 - 1/2mv0^2 = delta KE

Wnet = delta KE

-deltaPE = delta KE

or

PEi + KEi = PEf + KEf

Read

section 7.1 and answer questions 1 -> 8 on page 260.

Review your answers here.